Chlorides and Salts in Water - Future Problem for Groundwater Users
Written by Mr. Brian Oram, PG
Why Chlorides Are Important
Chloride is a salt compound resulting from the combination of the gas chlorine and a metal. Some common chlorides include sodium chloride (NaCl) and magnesium chloride (MgCl2). Chlorine alone as Cl2 is highly toxic, and it is often used as a disinfectant. In combination with a metal such as sodium it becomes essential for life. Small amounts of chlorides are required for normal cell functions in plant and animal life.
Chlorides are not usually harmful to people; however, the sodium part of table salt has been linked to heart and kidney disease. Sodium chloride may impart a salty taste at 250 mg/l; however, calcium or magnesium chloride are not usually detected by taste until levels of 1000 mg/l are reached. Public drinking water standards require chloride levels not to exceed 250 mg/l.
Chlorides may get into surface water from several sources including:
rocks containing chlorides,
wastewater from industries,
oil well wastes, and
effluent wastewater from wastewater treatment plants.
Chlorides can corrode metals and affect the taste of food products. Therefore, water that is used in industry or processed for any use has a recommended maximum chloride level. Chlorides can contaminate freshwater streams and lakes. Fish and aquatic communities cannot survive in high levels of chlorides.
For chloride or other chemical testing information, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
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