pH Buffering Systems

Applied Environmental Chemistry


Buffer Solution Formulas

The following formulas produce buffers with pH values close to that indicated.

The weights give 0.1 M concentrations of each species, when diluted to 1.0 L, so that the [acid]:[conjugate base] ratio is unity. In most cases the pH will have to be adjusted using a pH meter and the dropwise addition of either 6 M HCl or 6M NaOH to one liter of solution.

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Acid, formula and wt.or volume of standard reagent (mL) Conjugate base, formula and wt. pH
Phosphoric acid 85% H3PO4
6.8 mL
Monopotassium phosphate, KH2PO4
12.8 g
Hydrochloric acid, HCl, 8.6 mL Potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHC8H4O4, 20.4 g 2.8
Citric acid, HOC(CH2CO2H)2CO2H, 19.2 g monopotassium citrate, HOC(CH2CO2H)2CO2K, 23.0 g 3.1
Methyl succinic acid, HO2CCH2CH2CO2H, 11.8 Monosodium methylsuccinate,

HO2CCH2CH2CO2Na, 14.0

Acetic acid,CH3CO2H, glacial, 5.7 mL, or
Acetic acid,CH3CO2H, dilute (36%), 15.9 mL
Sodium acetate,CH3CO2Na , 
8.2 g
Potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHC8H4O4, 20.4 g, sodium hydroxide, NaOH, 4.0 g 4.8
Monosodium methylsuccinate, NaO2CCH2CH(CH3)CO2H, 15.3 g Disodium methylsuccinate, NaO2CCH2CH(CH3)CO2Na, 17.5 g 5.6
Monosodium citrate, HOC(CH2CO2H)2CO2Na, 21.4 g Disodium citrate, NaOC(CH2CO2H)2CO2Na, 23.6 g 5.9
Disodium citrate, HOC(CH2CO2Na)2CO2H, 23.6 g Trisodium citrate, HOC(CH2CO2Na)2CO2Na, 25.8 g 6.4
Monopotassium phosphate, KH2PO4,

12.8 g

Dipotassium phosphate, K2HPO4

15.8 g

DL-Cysteine, HSCH2CH(NH2)CO2H, 12.1 g Sodium DL-Cysteinate, HSCH2CH(NH2)CO2Na, 14.3 g 8.1
Boric acid

H2B4O7, 31.4 g

Sodium Hydroxide, NaOH, 4.0 g 9.1
Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3, 8.4 g Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, 10.6 g 10.2
Monosodium tellurate, NaHTeO4, 21.6g Disodium tellurate, Na2TeO4, 23.8g 11.3
Monosodium ascorbate, NaC6H7O6, 19.8g Disodium ascorbate, Na2C6H7O6, 22.0g 11.8
Dipotassium phosphate, K2HPO4

15.8 g

Tripotassium phosphate, K3PO4

19.6 g

Boric acid

H2B4O7, 31.4 g

Sodium hydroxide, NaOH, 12.0 g 12.7

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