Giardia Cysts and Giardiasis Waterborne Disease
Giardia Cysts and Giardiasis (say "gee-ar-dye-a-sis")
Recent changes in the EPA Drinking Water regulations and the development of the SOURCE Water Protection strategies have required water suppliers using springs or groundwater sources to evaluate drinking water sources for the presence of trophozoite).
After viable oocysts are ingested, there is an incubation period of 2 to 12 days. Typically the average incubation period is 7 days. The primary symptoms include: diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headaches, nausea, vomiting, and low-grade fever, which can lead to weight loss and dehydration. For the average human being in good health, the symptoms last approximately two weeks, but for immunocomprimised individuals, the disease can last for months and can be fatal. The individuals most at risk to this disease, if exposed, includes: AIDS patients, organ transplant recipients, malnourished children and individuals receiving certain cancer treatment .
In adults, giardiasis is commonly treated with a drug called metronidazole (otherwise known as Flagyl). Usually the drug is taken 3 times a day for 5 to 10 days. For children less than 5 years old, the treatment is typically with a drug known as furazolidone (or Furoxone). Typically the drugs have side effects similar to the disease.
The procedure used for Giardia is known as the immunofluorescent antibody method. The procedure requires that a minimum of 100 to 1000 gallons of water is filtered through a 1 micron filter. The filter is then cleaned and the material collected and centrifuged. The centrifuged pellet is then floated using a Percoll - Sucrose density gradient technique. The floated material is then cleaned and centrifuge and the pellet is then stained with a fluorescent antibody.
Slides of the pellet are prepared and the slides are examined for the cysts. If a cyst is suspected, the slide is then examined using Hoffman Modulation to confirm the proper shape, size, and at a minimum two internal structures. If you need a well, spring, or filtration plant evaluation the Center for Environmental Quality can assist you organization, business or local municipality. For More information on Giardia MPA MET Testing, please contact Giardia Analysis.
Water Check with Pesticides
Giardia and Giardiasis: Biology, Pathogenesis, and Epidemiology (This is a Great Reference !)
Online Training Resources
Water Research Center
...In Drinking Water